edited by Bernard Martin
It’s been estimated that a tool with a run-out of 50% of the tool’s chip load will reduce its tool-life by 40%. That means that a 1/8” tool with a 0.00019” chip load per tooth will lose 40% of its tool-life with a run-out of less than 0.0001”.
HORN’s new high performance coatings IG6 and SG3 are a testaments to engineering expertise in tool manufacturing.
The new coatings are less than 0.005 mm (.0002”) thick and an essential part of modern tool technology. Testing has shown that the new tool coatings extend the service life of carbide tools by over one-thousand percent.
IG6 is a copper colored aluminum-titanium-silica nitride (AlSiTiN) coating designed for use in machining materials P and M with grooving inserts type S224 and S229. In conjunction with the carbide substrate, the coating allows for faster material removal rates and significantly extended wear resistance in machining materials P and M. Standard inserts are available from stock.
SG3 is designed for use in titanium and super-alloys as well as turning and grooving applications in hardened materials, up to 58 HRC. The coating can be function in temperatures up to 1,100 degrees Celsus (2,012 degrees Fahrenheit).
HORN designed this coating to deliver outstanding performance with materials that are difficult to machine. The advantage of the tool coating have been proven on selected tool systems from HORN.
The Supermini® system 105 with SG3 coating is available from stock. In both cases, the IG6 and SG3 coatings are applied in-house, allowing for reduced delivery time.
HORN has developed a high level of expertise in coating precision tools since it began in-house coating processes. From five employees in the beginning to more than fifty employees, the aim has always been to create and invest in modern coating technologies for precision cutting tools.
The HORN team was the first in the world to take delivery of HiPIMS systems from CemeCon. The opportunities to develop hard and tough coating with a homogeneous structure has provided this team the flexibility to create advancements that benefit customers who demand precision tools in demanding applications.
Check out the video clip about Blue Photon using ultraviolet light to cure BlueGrip workholding adhesive on the grippers!
Watch the full episode covering workholding on Swarf Talk HERE
Swarf and Chips is sponsored by Intoco Special Steels and Alloys.
Courtesy of MTD CNC Media and Swarf and Chips.
Ian Sandusky from Practical Machinist takes a tour of GWS Tool Group's EASTEC Trade Show booth with John Kiffner from, showcasing their line of cutting tools.
Ian dices into the monoblocks, diamond-style milling tools, GWS' ceramics and custom thread whirling inserts and last, but not least, their Hurrimill AT4 end mill tool and the Alumigator ASR5 end mill tool.
Have any questions? Drop them in the comments!
We've been asked by one of our customers recently to post the standard reamer tolerances for Hannibal Carbide Reamers.
Here's the standard tolerances for the reamers.
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Tool diameter tolerance
General Purpose & Coolant Fed Reamers
Shank diameter tolerance
The reamer is used to finish machine a previously formed hole to an exact diameter with a smooth finish. It should not be used to significantly enlarge a hole (max. 5% – depending on material and hardness).
Decatur Diamond has a complete line of precision cutting tools specifically designed for machining graphite. The tool geometries are optimized for such applications as electrodes, molds, and hydrogen fuel cells. These designs provide excellent cutting performance while not sacrificing tool life. Fewer changeovers and more time in the cut promote long runs and application automation for improved cost savings.
CVD coated diamond tools are a perfect match for machining the graphite moldforms for EDM. The abrasive nature of EDM graphite grades severely limit the life of carbide tools, and PCD diamond tools are not available in the configurations required for detailed moldmaking.
Tools with diamond on the surface wear longer and have a lower coefficient of friction. These characteristics provide substantial benefit to machining operations.
Because diamond tools last 10 to 50 times longer than carbide tools, they:
When cutting graphite, most tool wear is caused by the abrasive nature of the graphite structure rather than by the material temperature or cutting speed. Unlike metal cutting, there is no heat generated when machining graphite, so tool speed is typically not seen as a wear factor. This distinction warrants the need for an abrasion resistant tool surface such as CVD diamond.
Because small feeds and depths of cut do not lead to increasing the amount of material chipping, tool wear will advance rapidly with light feed, but stabilize as feed is increased. Therefore, in addition to increasing the volume of material removed, increasing feed can extend tool life.
The depth of cut should not exceed one-half of an insert’s leg length or one-third of an endmill’s diameter. These parameters will minimize breakage at the exit of a cut.
Tool life is determined by the quality of the cutting edge and the thickness of the diamond layer at the cutting edge. A tool will go through a break in period that refines the cutting edge, resulting in an improved surface finish. This will be followed by a prolonged period of consistent performance and a gradual wearing of the diamond layer. End-of-life occurs when the diamond wears through, revealing the carbide substrate or when the diamond surface becomes chipped or fractured.
Tool configuration: use square endmills with a small radius whenever possible. Diamond tools are more brittle than carbide tools and sharp corners may break upon entry into a cut at high feed rates. A radius of 0.010” to 0.015” will greatly strengthen the tool, providing extra durability.
For roughing at high feed rates 2-flute endmills should be used to minimize the possibility of tool breakage from flute packing. For general purpose and finish cutting use 4 flutes. Improved surface finish and longer life usually result from multiple flutes in finishing operations.
Chipping: to avoid chipping, several techniques can be employed. Milling a short distance at the exit side of the part before starting the cut is very effective in avoiding breakout, just as chamfering the end of a cylinder is for turning. Lowering feed rates will lessen chipping upon exit, but directly affects productivity. Tool rotation can be used to lessen exit edge chipping for flat surfaces by using climb milling rotation rather than conventional milling rotation.
Feed rate: it is important to keep the tool engaged in the cut. If the feed rates drop too low (<.0001 to .0005” or <.00025 to .013mm) the tool tends to burnish the part, rather than cut. This can cause rapid tool wear.
When calculating the correct RPM for chip load at a given traverse speed it is important to consider if the machine is ever reaching the optimum traverse speed. It can take 1⁄2” or more to reach a high traverse speed. If the tool path has a lot of small adjustments, reduce RPM’s as the tool is never reaching the full traverse speed.
Machining Parameters: starting conditions vary considerably; 2000 SFM and 0.004” per flute per revolution is a conservative start point for 1⁄4” and larger endmills.
Dust removal: particular care should be used to clear the machining dust from holes during drilling. Proper removal will allow using higher spindle speed as well as reducing drill wear.
Machining Parameters: the table below shows starting machining parameters for drilling graphite. As are all applications, these conditions will vary according to the grade of the graphite being machined and the set-up and dust removal practices.
Machining Parameters: the table below shows starting machining parameters for Dapra & Millstar style ball nose, flat bottom, and back draft profiling cutters.
Turning and milling with inserted cutters
Tool configuration: perishable inserts with 1/64” to 1/32” nose radii are most effectively used for turning and milling graphite. A positive rake insert with a finish ground flank is preferred.
Surface finish: finish can be improved be selecting the appropriate tool geometry and feed rates. Larger nose radii will improve finish, but with increased tool pressure. A smaller nose radius will relieve pressure, but feed must be reduced to achieve comparable surface finish. DOC will not affect surface finish unless it causes excess tool pressure resulting in vibration, or if it is too light (under 0.005”) to remove an adequate amount of material.
Breakout: breakout at the end of a pass is always a concern. This can be avoided by having a chamfer cut on the end of the part to ease exit of the tool or provide stock which can be later cut off. Avoid square-nosed cut-off tools to prevent breaking prior to completion of the cut. A 20- degree angle is recommended.
Workpiece configuration: when machining long rods and cylinders, higher speeds and depths of cut can be employed with higher strength graphite materials.
Depth of cut: DOC should always be maximized when possible without incurring distortion of the part. When distortion is present, feed and DOC must be adjusted. Lower feed rates will allow holding deeper cuts. Feed rates of 0.005” per revolution for roughing and between 0.001” to 0.003”: for finishing might be necessary. Deeper cuts always generate higher pressures and larger fracturing particles, thereby producing rougher surface finishes.
Machining Parameters: the table below shows starting machining parameters for general purpose and finish turning.
Workpiece configuration: when milling large surfaces or volumes, higher speeds and depths of cut can be employed. Use higher strength graphite materials when there are thin walls involved.
Depth of cut: DOC should always be maximized when possible, to reduce multiple passes. Lower feed rates will allow holding deeper cuts. Feed rates of 0.004”/tooth/revolution for roughing and between 0.0005” to 0.002”/tooth/revolution for finishing might be necessary.
Multiple cutters: for multiple-pocket milling cutters it is recommended that axial alignment be used to align all inserts within +/-0.0002” for best results. This will improve surface finish and reduce insert wear, as all the inserts will be cutting equally.
Machining Parameters: the table below shows starting machining parameters for general purpose and finish turning.
There is sometimes confusion over the difference between Knurl Cutting and Knurl Forming and what is the best application to use for each method. Here's a quick synopsis of the differences and ideal application solutions.
Cutting Type Knurling tools create a knurling pattern by Material Removal.
For a Cutting Knurl, the knurl wheel’s axis is rotated to provide a leading edge, where the sharp edge will cut the knurl pattern into the work piece. Additionally, with a Cutting Knurl, less pressure is required for the operation and higher speeds and feeds can be used (use the same cutting data of High Speed or Cobalt turning tools). When Knurl Cutting, use full faced knurl wheels with a sharp edge, to penetrate into the work piece and cut the knurl pattern.
Forming Type Knurling tools create a knurling pattern by Material Displacement.
In Forming Knurl, the knurl wheels axis is set parallel to the work piece axis, and forced against the work piece, displacing the material to form the knurl pattern. A large amount of pressure is required to displace the material that forms the knurl pattern. When Knurl Forming, use beveled edge wheels to protect the edge from chipping which will create a smooth surface finish.
Paul Horn GmbH is responding to the requirements of users with their product line expansion to the tool range for slot milling and slot cutting, .
Horn now offers the cutter body of the M310 milling system with an internal coolant supply. This increases the service life of the indexable inserts and therefore reduces tool costs. The internal coolant supply also allows a higher level of precision when slot milling as no heat is transferred from the cutting zone into the component.
What’s more, the flushing action of the coolant, combined with the geometry of the cutting edges, prevents chip jamming in deep grooves.
Horn offers two types of milling and slotting cutter. The screw-in milling cutter is available in diameters from 50 mm (1.969") to 63 mm (2.480") with widths from 3 mm (0.118") to 5 mm (0.197").
As an arbour milling cutter, the main bodies are available with diameters from 63 mm (2.480") to 160 mm (6.300"). The widths are also between 3 mm (0.118") and 5 mm (0.197"). The three-edged S310 carbide inserts are bolted on the left and right of the main body and therefore ensure a good distribution of the cutting forces.
In addition to further geometries for processing different materials, Horn is introducing inserts with a geometry for milling aluminium alloys.
As well as expanding the M310 system, Horn is rounding off the range of the M101 and M383 milling systems.
For the M101 tool, S101 inserts are available from stock with a width of 2.5 mm (0.098").
What’s more, new inserts with an 8-degree lead angle are available especially for slot cutting. For the 383 system, HORN is expanding the range of bodies with diameters of 125 mm (4.921") and 160 mm (6.300").
Orders accepted beginning July 15, 2021. First shipments from inventory July 26th 2021
F&L Technical Sales is excited to announce the launch of a brand new workholding product line for CNC Milling machines! Check out the press release below! We'll be adding more technical information after the product launch and after we return from our training in July! This is exciting stuff!!
Mate Precision Technologies, a global leader in metal forming and metalworking solutions, announced today that it is launching a new line of 52/96 workholding technology for CNC machining operations.
Sundquist explained, “What’s really sets this system apart is that our workholding is designed and built by Mate machinists in our Anoka, Minnesota, facility. They know what machinists want in a workholding system because they want those same things themselves.”
A New Era for Workholding
Leveraging nearly six decades of machining Mate’s workholding line offers an impressive selection of options:
The Mate 52/96 workholding system includes QuickSpecs™, Mate’s unique product identification system. QuickSpecs allows real-time access to critical user data, CAD models and potential integration into business systems. Additionally, the product supports common robotic interfaces and palletizing systems to support factory automation.
This new line is designed and manufactured with Mate’s renowned performance standards for best-in-class accuracy and repeatability. The workholding system is backed by the company’s sophisticated technical support, unsurpassed product quality, responsive customer service, and 100-percent satisfaction guarantee. Learn more online: mate.com/products/workholding.
The workholding announcement comes shortly after Mate changed its corporate name to Mate Precision Technologies to reflect the company's broader commitment to metalworking and using its expertise to drive innovations to shape the future of factory productivity. In describing the name change Sundquist commented, “It truly supports our mission statement, which focuses on improving our customers’ factory productivity, and we are now better positioned to extend our skills and technologies to other markets like the metal cutting and machining industry.”
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